Indian Air Force

Indian Air Force & Its Need Of 42 Fighter Squadrons

For a long now, the Indian Air Force has desired to have a squadron strength of 42 in number, which is the sanctioned squadron strength for the IAF. Experts have argued for & against both on this requirement. We did detailed research on the matter too & deduced something very important to share with you.

The first thing that we would like to clear out is that the need for 42 “combat” squadrons was coined many years back when the Indian Air Force’s major part of the fleet was 3rd generation fighters & 4th generation fighters like the Su-30MKI were gradually catching up.

MiG-21 twin seater with Su-30Mki at the backdrop

The 3rd generation fighters were designed to perform a single & focused role like interceptor (MiG-21), ground attack (Jaguar), close air support (MiG-27), etc. These different roles required separate specialist types of aircraft for each role which in turn increased the count of aircraft needed to fulfill all the roles. So if IAF really had all 3rd generation of fighters in its inventory, the organization would really need as much as 42 combat squadrons for a two-front war.

But with changing times & the induction of more 4th & 4.5 generation aircraft in the IAF, the calculation of having 42 squadrons is practically changing.

Rafale with Su-30Mki at Ambala Air Force Base

Unlike the 3rd generation aircraft, the newer generation of aircraft refers to what is called Multirole Combat aircraft. That means that a single aircraft can undertake various missions which earlier needed a lot of different mission-specific aircraft. Since now one type of aircraft replaces several types of older aircraft, the count of total aircraft required to maintain the same level of aerial supremacy has decreased.

For example:

  • Su-30MKI – This is the backbone of the IAF. These are capable of modern aircraft which can undertake roles like air superiority fighter, fighter-bomber, strike fighter, ground-attack aircraft, interceptor, mini-AWACS, reconnaissance, etc.
  • Rafale – Just like the Flanker, the Rafale replaces 7 different types of aircraft roles. Hence it is also called “Omnirole fighter”.
Omnirole loadout of Rafale

So now factoring all these, do we still really need 42 combat squadrons? In the best estimate, 35-38 combat squadrons of modern multirole combat aircraft are good enough for a two-front war. IAF’s present strength is 30-odd combat squadrons but this includes a mix of many 3rd & 4th generation combat aircraft.

Having said that, this is how are we accounting for 35 odd squadrons in the coming years:

Year 2021–2022:

  • One squadron of the Tejas Mk1 FOC variant is going to be inducted in 2021 in Sulur. The squadron is raised already but flies only one Tejas fighter. It’ll receive full strength in about one year after HAL resumes production post-COVID-19.
Tejas Mk1 at No. 45 squadron, Sulur Air Force Base
  • One squadron of MiG-29UPG multirole combat aircraft will be inducted & operationalized instantly in 2021.
  • 12 of the Su-30MKI would be manufactured by HAL Nashik & inducted in the IAF by 2022. This, however, won’t raise any extra squadron but will be a replacement for all the Su-30MKI crashed to date.
Su-30Mki at the tarmac
  • Two Squadrons of Rafale will be operational by the end of 2022. IAF might order 36 units more at a far lesser price if it cancels the MRFA (MMRCA 2.0) deal.
Dassault Rafale waiting to fly in formation
  • On the negative side, 7 squadrons of MiG-21 Bison will be phased out. Though 7 squadrons do sound like a huge number, but this means a count of 93 aircraft only as the Bison squadrons don’t have full strength.
MiG-21 Bison with canopy covers at a temporary storage

Year 2023–2028:

  • Four or five squadrons of the LCA Tejas Mk1A will be inducted over a period of 6 years starting 2023. 83 of these single-seat fighters (the earlier split was 73 single-seat + 10 trainer) will be inducted at 14–15 aircraft per year production rate.
  • If IAF chooses to buy 36 more Rafale, they’ll be delivered by this time frame, adding 2 more squadrons.

Year 2029 onwards

  • MWF (Tejas Mk2) will have its first flight in 2022 & production would start in 2029. IAF’s long term vision is to have 10 squadrons or 200 of these aircraft over the next couple of years. This will replace the MiG-29UPG, Mirage 2000 & Jaguar after 2035.

Year 2035 & beyond

  • 6 squadrons of AMCA will begin to enter into service from 2035 as per IAF’s long term vision. The original timeline of the expected production is 2029 but considering the MWF program, a more realistic timeline is 2035. Now since the IAF has canceled the ORCA, it might order 6 more squadrons of AMCA in the second batch of production. AMCA will gradually start replacing the Su-30MKI post-2040.

These are the expected & realistic timelines of the upcoming fighters. According to this timeline, post-2030, we’ll have 30–35 combat squadrons in IAF. A noteworthy thing is these 35 combat squadrons will be of full strength & will have modern multirole combat aircraft except the Jaguars which will see their retirement during the same time.

We don’t see any imports happening apart from the Rafale & most of the aircraft would be manufactured by HAL itself. In the upcoming years, HAL’s role will be limited to a lead integrator only & most of the assemblies & subassemblies will be made privately.

An LCA Tejas in it’s first flight after production

Even today, many of the parts of Tejas like the wings are made by L&T & similar private firms. In the future, this contribution is expected to increase.

If HAL decides to use the Nashik assembly line (which currently manufactures the Su-30MKI) to produce the AMCA alongside the MWF in the Bangalore assembly line, the rate of increase of combat squadrons will be much higher post-2030.

Su-30Mki assembly line at HAL Nashik

Even if the Jaguars & gradually the Mirage 2000 & the MiG-29UPG are phased out during 2030–35, we’ll not see a dip in the combat squadron strength & it’ll hover around a healthy number of 35 in the worst case, which is a terrific number for modern multirole aircraft.

Anything to assume post 2035 will be too long a shot to make.

I hope this clears the air about the timelines of the IAF. These timelines are determined by HAL & IAF only & have been referenced from various sources on the internet.


Subhadeep Paul

Subhadeep is a military aviation & defense systems enthusiast known to write well researched & unbiased content. He has penned down over 400 articles on various online platforms which have helped more than 6 million viewers to have an understanding of Defense. Subhadeep has also been the “Most Viewed Writer” on multiple topics on Quora such as Dassault Rafale, Indian Air force & Fighter Aircraft. Hailing from a military family himself, he has experienced the functioning of Indian Armed Forces for years which has led to the understanding & accurate portrayal of the forces in his content. He frequently writes about aircraft, strategy, weapons & his content is said to be easily comprehensible even by common man with a limited understanding on the subject.


  1. Whenever an estimate is made about strength, most likely it depends on the “then” immediate situations and some probable contingencies about some in near future, but my friend, u tell me this, do u know what ur neighbor is concealing from u??? Today u r saying u have almost 4.5 generation war machines, and even in near future u may ve 5th or 6th but stil u won’t know ur enemies r hiding , any country try to sell their war inventories when they have much more advanced at least 2 decades ahaed of their times, they just sell out junk to make money, like chinook, or apache, or super hornet, on the other hand, we r trying to sell bramhos, when we know neghbours r quite capable if reverse engineering, do not be In any misconception, anything can be arranged via deep/dark web network, if it crosses our borders…as far as strength is concerned…u know, i hope u now know what to do…!!!
    Jai Hind Jai Bharat Jai Siya Ram

  2. Thanks for the video upload lekin ye to bahut purana video hai, aapke gyaan series wala, ye to YouTube par hi dekha hua hai, aaj bhi aona naya video upload kiya hoga wahan par, agar possible hai to use yahan par bhi upload kar dijiye……

  3. This argument that ‘IAF now has better aircraft and hence does not need as many numbers’ is essentially flawed. High time we junked this line. This is simply trying to someone reducing the problem by inane reasoning.

    In the past 10 years, the PAF has grown in numbers. They have 22-23 fighter squadrons today. They had less than 20 some 20 years back when IAF was at 42.

    Then, PLAAF and PAF have both grown leaps and bounds in quality. if IAF aircraft have improved, well, neither have its adversaries been sleeping and holding on to archaic aeroplanes. How does this get missed out?

    Instead of spending on white elephants like mountain strike corps (which will give neglible advantage for massive cost) and aircraft carriers (which will never see war), we need to set right the deficiencies in air power.

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