In Detail: India and Nepal Dispute


India and Nepal has very strong relationship among themselves including similar Culture, Language & Religion. But recently it faced a setback over the territorial dispute.

These two countries do not require any visa for the movement of people across the country. It is said that India and Nepal have a relationship of  Roti-Beti ka Rishta which means marriages and familial ties.

Nepal shares a border with 5 Indian states- Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Sikkim, and Bihar.


  1. The Treaty of Sugauli was ratified in 1816 which defines that the Kali River sets the boundary between India and Nepal. Over the decades, these rivers have changed courses several times, giving rise to disputes, claims, and counterclaims on land.
  1. In May 2015, India signed an agreement with China to use the Lipu Lekh Pass for trade. Nepal immediately protested to both the countries. 
  2. After the abrogation of Article 370 and 35A of the Indian constitution in November 2019, India published a new map that showed Kalapani within its territory. 
  3. After the inaugurated of a road link to Lipu Lekh, the length of Kailash Mansarovar Yatra reduced to 2 days (5 days initially). 
  4. The statement by Indian Army Chief General M.M. Naravane, implying China had instigated Nepal to lay claims on the area.         


As this time China is exerting pressure on Nepal and the Nepal Communist Party reacts accordingly.

In the recent news, the Chinese envoy to Nepal- Hou Yanqi played an active role in forming the government of Nepal. In the recent past, there was a downfall of the Communist Party of Nepal. The Chinese Envoy held various meetings with the Communist Party of Nepal and safeguarded it. This was a clear indication of the direct involvement of china in the Nepal government.

China’s ideology is based on territorial expansionist. China has land borders with 14 countries but China has territorial disputes with 21 countries. Most of the territorial dispute is in the South China Sea.


Obviously, under the influence of China, the government of Nepal has taken various steps to hurt the sentiments of the people of India. Following are some of them –

new territory included in Nepal Map
  1. Nepal government introduced a new map in May 2020. This map counts Indian territories of Kalapani, Lipulekh, and Limpiyadhura as its own.
  2. An Indian national was killed and two others were injured when Nepal’s Armed Police Force personnel opened fire at a group of Indians. Nepal police claimed, they forcibly tried to enter into the Nepalese territory after crossing the southern border during the lockdown.
  3. Conversely, the false statement made by Nepal Prime Minister KP Sharma ‘Oli’, claims that Lord Ram was born in Nepal.
  4.  Nepal bans all Indian news channel except Doordarshan, slams ‘defamatory’ coverage of PM KP Oli.
  5. Oli’s government claims India’s role in toppling its government.


Hence, Nepal is controlled by the Communist Party Of China. Therefore India should adopt the policy of “Wait and Watch” till there is a change in the Nepal government.

At the same time, India should softly handle the statement made by Oli’s government. Because the statements are made unilaterally by Pm KP Oli and not by the people of Nepal. However, there is a strong bond between the people of India and Nepal which can’t be deteriorated.


Diwakar Kumar Gupta

I am from Hajipur, Bihar and currently living in New Delhi. I am keen in gathering information about International and Defence affairs.

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